PES incentives for smallholders to avoid deforestation: lessons learned and factors for success
Payments for ecosystem services, or PES, projects are designed to provide incentives for people and organisations to protect environmental services in an area.
This report reviews a wide range of literature on PES projects involving smallholders in tropical forest countries in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia. It offers a close look at the design and outcome of seven case studies. The authors identify the elements that determine success, and offer lessons for future PES schemes as well as for other smallholder-oriented initiatives.