This document outlines some of the most common underlying conditions in which child labour, forced labour, inadequate health and safety, and land rights abuses and disputes are reported to occur in agriculture and forestry.
The conditions act as drivers or risk factors which can increase the likelihood of labour and land issues occurring.
To identify the most commonly reported conditions, we have drawn from a review of the literature, analysis of mill-level site assessments and discussions with Proforest colleagues and partners who have years of experience in assessing labour and land rights. Our analysis is by no means comprehensive. In addition to the four issues reviewed here, there are other social issues which affect workers, farmers and communities, but although they are not included, they may share some of the underlying conditions.
Although we focus on two tropical commodities, palm oil and sugarcane, much of the literature is more general and the drivers identified here are likely to be relevant for other crops and contexts.